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 FASSBENDER,  Joseph Text Deutsch Text Englisch Donnerstaggesellschaft Deutsch Englisch Donnerstaggesellschaft Katalog      


 Joseph Faßbender and his art

 Maxi Sickert

1903, the new century has just dawned. Eric Satie performs Three pieces shaped like a pear in Paris, the opera A Guest of Honor by the Afro-American ragtime composer Scott Joplin has its world premier in East St. Louis, Wagner's opera Parsifal is performed in New Work without authorization (Cosima Wager is that angry that the participating singers and musicians are banned from performing in Bayreuth ever again) and in Germany, Lovis Corinth, Max Klinger, Max Liebermann and other artists found the Deutscher Künstlerbund (German Artist Association) in Weimar, which shows in 20 exhibitions the spectrum of current German art before it was prohibited by the Nazis in 1936. Rise and breakthrough of modernism are closely related to the history of the Deutscher Künstlerbund, which in 1905 purchases the Villa Romana in order to support young painters with scholarships. Some of the winners of the Villa Romana prize were Max Beckmann, Käthe Kollwitz, Ernst Barlach and in 1929, the young painter from Cologne, Joseph Faßbender.

Joseph Faßbender was born on 14th April 1903 in the district Nippes in Cologne as the second child of four to master baker Caspar Faßbender and his wife Elisabeth. He is very good at school, even skips a class. But the father makes him leave school before graduation to start an apprenticeship as a baker. He spends 15 hours a day in the bakery and tries to seize every minute of his free time to draw.

In 1926, Faßbender begins at the age of 23 with his studies at Kölner Werkschulen in Prof. Richard Seewald's class for painting, wall painting, graphic techniques and illustration. Other teachers are Friedrich Ahlers-Hestermann, Johann Thorn-Prikker for mosaic, glass and wall painting, the typesetter Jacob Erbar and the graphic artist Heinrich Hussmann, a former student of Fernand Léger. Important is the "werkbundspirit" (Werkbundgedanke), the search for a new style, due to purpose, material and construction.

When Richard Riemerschmid, director of Kölner Werkschulen finds out that Faßbender does not receive any financial support, he pays the school's fee of 75 marks per trimester himself, convinced of his talent. After Faßbender graduates he rents a studio in Rankestraße in Cologne in 1928. The Wallraf-Richartz-Museum buys one of his paintings for 500 marks. And on 18th May 1929, he receives the Villa Romana price of the German Artist Association for his painting "Rote Anker" (Red Anchors) initiated by Seewald. He receives a scholarship to work for one year at Villa Romana in Florence.

Faßbender paints "Red Anchors" in 1928 with oil on canvas in the format 87x102 cm. Trees and bushes are bending in front of a cloudy, grey sky. A lonely fence and a disappearing bridge, remains of the First World War lying next to it. The place seems abandoned. Two red anchors are lying in the sand, resting like tombstones. Their red colour takes hold of the view in that wind. It is an expressionist painting which resembles Kirchner, like Faßbenders "Altstadt Köln" (Cologne historic centre) from 1934: The view out of the window, people with dark coats, rearing green.


On 29th July, Faßbender marries his wife Anna. One day after, they travel to Florence. In the annual report of the Villa Romana from 1936, Faßbender describes how difficult that year is for them. There is hardly any furniture when they arrive and the tile stoves do not work. The villa itself is not vacant yet, so they first live in the concierge's flat under the roof. Faßbender: "We soon knew the town as well as our Cologne. We spent as little money as possible. We often had some economic weeks with the patent remedy bean soup because painting materials were so expensive. The Credito Italiano told us very soon that our cash had almost finished. What should we do? Sell paintings? But nobody bought paintings. Nobody bought drawings. Nobody bought nothing. (…) The studio was cold in February. The old and worn-out tile stoves did not do their job. Misery. When the hands had turned blue, I curled up in bed. And when they were coloured again, I continued painting in my studio with the terrazzo floor. It did not have anything to do with the lifestyle of somebody who lives in a Villa".

In that time, he has a skull full sorrow about how to paint, as they do not have the money for the materials. Nobody wants to buy the paintings. And, retrospectively, he writes: Maybe I actually had been too young? Seewald had given me some good advice how to act. But stubborn as I was, I forgot them temporarily. He spends much time in the park Boboli, at the river Ema or he visits the Monte Morello and writes down notes: "It did not go well with my art. Everywhere, landscapes imposed". In April of 1930, the Faßbenders already return to Cologne. Due to the financial crisis and the consequent stagnation in art trade and exhibitions, their financial situation even deteriorates.

After his return Seewald provides him with a free studio in Amalienschlösschen that he has to leave the following year already because of the Nazis. In 1932, Faßbender writes: "Herr Hitler is shouting out his brown stuff from the pub at the exhibition centre". Then, he rents a studio apartment in Seyengasse in Cologne.

In the same year, Faßbender meets the poet Eugen Gottlob Winkler who commits suicide in 1936 for political reasons. Winkler dedicates him his essay "Über die Erkundung der Linie" (about the exploration of the line). In Faßbender's art, an increasing reduction of means appears now, as in the monotype "Portrait of Anna Faßbender" of 1932, about which Eugen Gottlob Winkler writes in his diary in 1934: "the simple defeat of such large surfaces, the great design with such little graphic effort".

Hann Trier remembers the studio in Seyengasse on a night with friends of the "Faßbender circle" on 3rd December 1938: In the studio hall, there was an approx. 1,20 m high bookshelf on one of the long walls, overloaded with old books and works with illustrations. From the drawers next to it, hundreds of photos poured out, which Faßbender had kept for some reason. (…) Sometimes, somebody liked one of the photos without stating what was good about it. (…). The term "precise" was of high priority in the judgement, by which a photographer may think of a good exposure or another one of the image section. But for Faßbender, it was the gradient of black, white and grey nuances. (…) Through the opposite window, one could see the façade of the Rhenus navigation company on which we sometimes projected skeletons and other scary things with an epidiascope in order to scare passengers. That night, the epidiascope was neatly removed as was the easel and it was standing in a corner.

An artist circle formed in the studio in Seyengasse. By then, they are still making jokes about Hitler and the Nazis, like with a twice exposed photo that shows the friends with a Hitler moustache. The artists were convinced that they could escape from politics and consider art an immune place. In 1935, Faßbenders works are exhibited in the print room of the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum. The paper works, which he sends in 1936 to the exhibition of the German artist association, do not return. Modern art is considered degenerate and as a cultural document of Bolshevism and Jewish subversion.

On 6th June 1937, propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels orders to confiscate numerous works of the modern department of the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, among them works by Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris, Paul Gaugin, Vincent Van Gogh, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Oskar Kokoschka and Otto Dix. Those works are shown in the Degenerate Art exhibition as symbols for cultural decay. On the flyer of the exhibition, which teenagers were not allowed to see, was written: "Tortured canvas, mental rot, morbid dreamers, lunatics, bunglers". (Catalogue: "Resistance and Persecution in Cologne 1933-1945")

To earn his living, Fassbender accepts several functional graphic design jobs, including works for the medical faculty of the University of Cologne in the 1930s, for which he draws anatomical designs and disease patterns. He wrote down in 1958: "I would not have believed it, but even from doing that I got inspired for my artistic work".


During the war, Faßbender loses all his works, his library and parts of the studio furniture due to a fire (1941) and to a flooding in the cellar of the studio in Seyengasse (1942).

Hann Trier writes about that: "Soon after the war had broken out, I was separated from Faßbender because I was called up. Then, the unimaginable happened and he, the notorious civilian, became a soldier, too. He had to guard French prisoners of war. As he fraternized with them, some of them took advantage of his trust and escaped. He narrowly escaped court martial. (...) After that, he fell into British captivity while I had to serve in Pomerania. We did not meet again until spring 1946 in Bornheim near Bonn. (...) It was there and in Alfter where the Donnerstag-Gesellschaft started to act".

In June 1941, Faßbender is called up by the Wehrmacht (unified armed forces during the Nazi regime). He is stationed as a rifleman in the Ruhr region. In 1943, he is ordered to go to France, where he reads the philosophical essay Le Mythe de Sisyphe about the meaning of the absurd which Albert Camus wrote in 1942. For Camus, the human finds himself in an absurd situation. The absurdity lies in the tension between the absurdity of the world on the one hand and the longing of the human for a purpose and meaningful action on the other hand. According to Camus, there are three successive stages of dealing with the absurd: acknowledging it, accepting it and ultimately revolting against it. Only by revolting against the absurd, the "absurd human being" can find freedom. In this, he resembles the mythological figure of Sisyphus and the constant absurdity of his actions. Camus: "It is the secret joy of Sisyphus. His fate belongs to him, his rock is his business. And further: the absurd human says yes, and the effort does not stop anymore. (...) Fighting against summits may fill a human's heart. We have to imagine Sisyphus as a happy person".

Faßbender is that impressed by the text that he sends it to his friend Hann Trier in 1944. He produces several works and calls them "Sisyphus" and "The Rock".

In November 1944, Faßbender is captured by the English. There, it is noticed that his right eye lens has dimmed, but they do not operate on him. When his right eye is going blind, he is repatriated because of his illness in 1946 and goes to Bornheim, where Anna Faßbender already found shelter in 1944. The apartment and the studio in Cologne have been destroyed by the bombs.

Interrupted Modernism

The A-Werk (A-work) is a word Faßbender created in his time in Alfter, which he perceived as asylum of the bombs, and it stands therefore for Alfter, asylum, as well as perhaps exemplarily for "Anfang und Neubeginn" (beginning and restart). When they meet, the artists discuss about art, but also about literature and philosophy. Eduard Trier wrote down in his diary in 1948: In the foothills, people talked about the French existentialists, and additionally about Heidegger's "Being and Time". Heidegger and Ortega y Gasset were discussed in the philosophic workshop of Meunier. Faßbender and Trier often participated. As there are no transport facilities, they have to walk over from Bornheim. Schnitzler wrote in his diary, which was found in the property of Eduard Trier: It was a one hour walk from Faßbender's home to the castle of Alfter. When the Donnerstag-Gesellschaft was supposed to be founded as an association, Faßbender and the other artists were sceptical at first. But as the Thursday's heads, as he says, are burnt children either, he participates too, and writes down: Alfter was now pirate domicile.

On the Day of Abstract Art on 20th July 1947, Faßbender makes the introductory lecture before the opening of the exhibition. The artist, who in 1947 was already 43 years old, speaks about the illustrating power of the artist, which always aspires to make the methods of the contradictory visible, the introverted world of the own ego and the extroverted of the outside world. Particularly the exploration of the inner world would be reserved to his time and to abstract painting. He points out that the pictures shown have more inside than what can be seen at first glance. But the power of the active eye has brought that what has already been seen into new contexts. (...) Finally, the once finished work is, therefore, not only itself, but also the carrier of a formal or coloured principle, which itself initiates the birth of a chain of new works. It was not necessary that the imagination of the viewer matched with image titles or his own imagination.

For the performance of "The Flies" on 15th February 1948, Faßbender, Hann Trier and Hubert Berke make 60 glass etchings, which are projected with an epidiascope to the wall behind the actors. Hann Trier remembers in an interview from 1989: The small glass plates had the format 8,1 x 10 cm and the motifs were scratched into the glass which had been blackened with smut or ink. The motifs that was most often used were flies that symbolized the curse of Orestes. Occasionally, they projected a big head of Hitler whose right eye showed Stalin. For the lecture, that is performed twice that day, Faßbender, Berke and Trier offer a portfolio with woodcuts in an edition of 200 for purchase. An important work from that year is the monotype "Elektras Tanz" (Electra's Dance). The demonic figure of Electra is resolved into geometric shapes. Due to the currency reform that occurred in the same year the Donnerstag-Gesellschaft breaks up and the members move back to the cities.

In Faßbender's works, the resolving and deconstruction of the figures increases. The advancing abstraction of the graphic skeleton and the geometrical use of the picture's surface become the essential components of the pictures. The shapes are moved and curved, an amorphous, leafy sprawling.


In Faßbender's works, the resolving and deconstruction of the figures increases. The advancing abstraction of the graphic skeleton and the geometrical use of the picture's surface become the essential components of the pictures. The shapes are moved and curved, an amorphous, leafy sprawling.

In 1947, Willi Baumeister publishes "Das Unbekannte in der Kunst" (The Unknown in Arts). Baumeister is considered a pioneer in abstract painting. He addresses in his book to the contemporary artists and requests them to discover new visual zones and make them visible for others.

In 1948, Faßbender, Trier and Berke have exhibitions in Galerie Ruhstrat in Hamburg, and in Galerie Otto Ralfs in Braunschweig together with Eugen Batz. Faßbender had joined the Rheinische Sezession in 1948 and would have liked to settle in Bonn in 1949. But his friend Dr. Walter Holzhausen, who is the head of Städtische Kunstsammlung (Municial Art Collection) since 1947, cannot find a free studio for him. The conservative municipal committees still slow down the support of abstract art. The financial situation is difficult. Faßbender can hardly make his living by ordered functional art jobs. His wife Anna works in a clothes shop. They receive care packages and fine drawing paper from the family Regnery from Chicago, who are friends of the Schnitzlers, and till 1950 The "Museum for objective Painting" from New York helps them with money and care packages. Hilla von Rebay had opened the Museum "Non objective Painting" from which the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum emanated in 1952.

In 1949 the artist group ZEN 49 was formed in Munich by Willi Baumeister, Rolf Cavael, Gerhard Fietz, Rupprecht Geiger, Willi Hempel, Fritz Winter and the sculptor Brigitte Meier-Denninghoff. In 1951 the group becomes bigger and acts not only in the South of Germany. Cavael and Winter suggest Berke, Faßbender and Trier as new members. Cavael and Hartung had already visited Trier in 1948 in Bornheim once. Trier and Faßbender meet Willi Baumeister in the Weinhaus Denant (wine house Denant) in Cologne, where as long as since 1949 a regular artist meeting is held, chaired by the sculptor Ewald Mataré.

In the gallery "Der Spiegel", founded in 1945, Faßbender has his first solo exhibition, which was sold out within short time. He also receives the Karl Ströher prize in Darmstadt and he is a member of the jury of the German artist association, which has formed again in 1950 directed by Karl Hofer. The exhibitions of the association were considered until 1955 as the most important exhibitions that gave an overview on abstract art. In summer 1954 Faßbender has another solo show in the gallery Der Spiegel.

A photo made towards the end of the1950s shows Joseph Faßbender in his studio in Maternusstraße with his dog Fifi, which can be recognized in many drawing. Faßbender sits on a woven chair, wearing a black turtle neck pullover. On the wide table the material in geometrical order, as in his drawings. The brushes are in vases, the palette knives lined up precisely next to them. Bottles with solvents arranged by their sizes, paper works are laying on top of each other, in front of him scissors, adhesive tape, watercolour crayons and set squares and adhesive tape, an easel on the left.

Faßbender in his lecture on drawing in 1967: "We take the pencil. We separate the surface into parts, again and again, we destroy them with horizontal and vertical strokes, put bended or curved lines onto it, by doing this we find the condensate, to a carrier of bigger or smaller signs, we break them open with dots, with spots, follow the eidetic at those parts where it inflames. Nobody knows in this beginning where the path will lead to, until we reach the point where it becomes denser and starts giving commands, where the graphical act does not simply follow the subconscious, where the shape begins".

Faßbender disapproves of modern art (Beuys, Vostell). His perspective on the art of the 1960s is not very optimistic. He considers Beuys a provocation, not an artist and he refuses to use art as a way of political or social expression. In his first lecture in the academy of Düsseldorf, he calls Klee the last magician of the house. He resists the new art and says that it was lacking any technical skills. In 1959 after the opening of documenta II, it was already criticised that Informel had reached its bottom and that it had exhausted its non-committal subjectivity. Faßbender's idea of art is still rooted in the traditional approach, which consists in working on art historical topics. For Faßbender this means above all topics taken from the ancient world on which he works from a mythological and metaphorical perspective. He explains that the artist should deal with the shapes of the world as a cosmic entity and not with the society he lives in or with his personal problems. In his reflections he writes in 1960: By the real creation of new shapes, larger series derive which raise the power of the visualized and expand it.

Faßbender about his paperwork (lecture about drawing, 1967): "The simple dabbing of a bristly brush and the adding of some drops of an alcoholic resin dilution, like turpentine in ink, provoking that the ink coagulates on the paper and colours it partially like carbon. (...) The non-shining of the ink, when diluted or dense Chinese inks are becoming independent on the paper and make one understand the being of black, as if they were special seas and oneself the calamari inside them".

For the ballet by Darius Milhaud " l´homme e son désir" he designs the stage setting, a monumental Faßbender-drawing in a net of lines, angles and circular structures in moving shapes.

In 1961, he produces circular pictures, the series of "Assiettes", plate pictures. In that period, the Faßbenders live in Maternusstraße in Cologne Südstadt. In 1962, they move to Schnurgasse. The painter Albrecht Fabri had assigned certain creatures, humans and animals, to 17 certain plates. Faßbender writes down: "A certain circle remained, in which the black and the white was floating around, strongly following other laws than the seeming stimulant". Later he produces the "Doppel-Assiettes" (double assiettes). Faßbender writes about that, that by losing the centre, the harmony of the self-contented circle would become lost as well. In 1964, his works are shown in the German pavilion of the 32nd biennale in Venice. Robert Rauschenberg receives the biennale prize and Faßbender writes angrily to the Fürstin (Princess) Cecilie von Salm-Reifferscheidt, who is a friend of his from his time in Alfter: art metal corrodes, the "electronified" painting is threatened by short-circuit.

From SPIEGEL magazine about the Venice Biennale on 1st July 1964: The president did not come to the opening despite of having announced that he would. Venice's patriarch warned the religious people of the exhibition and did not allow the clergy to go. (...) The German delegation looked bitterly at the pillars of their pavilion which were still constructed in the style of the Reichskanzlei (Reich chancellery). After days of constant quarrelling, the jury split up without having found a solution, and Italian painters were protesting against "the illegitimate judgement of current Italian painting".

Prof. Dr. Eduard Trier from the cultural department of the federal industry association (...) was responsible for the German pavilion. He even decided to present only two German artists from the Rhine region: "My decision is a subjective decision". And it was the Cologne based painter Joseph Faßbender, he selected. Faßbender creates ornamental shapes from shades between black and white . Further, he selected the sculptor Norbert Kricke, from Düsseldorf and his construction plastics from bundled metal bars. His work "Wälder" (forests), made from tall glass tubes and flowing water, which would surely have caused a sensation at the Adriatic sea, could not be built up for technical reasons: The German pavilion did neither have water supply nor electricity. So, the solid German contribution to the biennale was only little attractive, but the other states had not presented themselves much stronger.

From 1964 on, Faßbender creates oil paintings based on his earlier drawings. Purposeful empty spaces and untreated white surfaces are characteristic about them. Faßbender calls it leaving a room (...) so that they are the ground on which the graphically drawn amounts. (Lecture about drawing 1967). In the same year, he writes in a letter to Hans Schwippert, former director of the art academy Düsseldorf: I tried to think about chromatics and I found out that neither Kandinsky nor Nay were right.

Ways of the eye

The drawing is the shape-giving initiator of all cognition and action. The brush is the pencil 's soft brother, the opposite of silence born from the effect. (Lecture about drawing, 1967).

When Faßbender retires in 1968, he misses the exchanging of opinions with the students of the academy. He feels thrown back into the own thought factory. His vision is becoming increasingly weak and he decides to have a surgery. After the successful operation he writes to his friend, Heinrich Böll: They opened the right "window" after 30 years. I can see from it again, a miracolo in vero.

Heinrich Böll writes a poem for Faßbender which describes his love for the ancient world and for his native city Cologne.

Cologne I

Who is listening at the canals/can hear them/in labyrinths - underneath the city/rubble, shard bones, everywhere/the Madonna stumbles/behind Venus/to convince her - in vain/in vain her son behind Dionysus/in vain Gereon behind Caesar/sneering laughter/who is listening at the canals/can hear it/The dark mother/through history - not become better/suits the dirt well/in labyrinths - underneath the city/is she pairing off the Madonna/with Dionysus/pairing off the son with Venus/forces Gereon and Caesar/to a big coalition/she pairs off herself with everyone with good money.

The square adds now to his shapes rectangle, circles and ovals. He writes to the Fürstin Cecile von Salm-Reifferscheidt: Now, my love for the square has awakened and it could affect my formats in the next time. He spends a lot of time with his wife Anna at the Fürstin's Castle Dyck. From 1972 on, he creates the series Hortus Dyckensis. On 14th April 1973, the Fürstin organizes a big party for Faßbender's 70th birthday. His acceptance speech starts with his time with the Donnerstag-Gesellschaft and ends by talking about the current art, which he criticises strongly:

the artist is not present/ non e presente/ podarsi in azione/ got entangled in pop spoons and chewing gum/ in yankeestrips/ in neorealism/ in plexiski and kongonails/ deals with wires/ monuments of last loneliness/ in irritations/ breathing time.

The teacher Faßbender

In 1953, Faßbender lectures at the academy for fine arts in Hamburg for two semesters. In 1955 he is made director of the graphic department at Werkkunstschule Krefeld (Art School Krefeld), and in 1958, he becomes professor at the art academy in Düsseldorf. He considers himself as a resistance fighter against the pseudo-morality of other teaching artists. Beuys is a teacher at the academy in Düsseldorf, too. Faßbender reintroduces nude drawing as an exercise for the vision in those pop-days.

The art historic Anna Klapheck, who taught from 1952 to 1964 at the academy in Düsseldorf, said: drawing has always been the primary thing for me. Not until 1957 did the oil come back to the canvas. With the first request of a wall carpet in 1954 initiates the interest in working with big formats, the effect of a painting on a space.

A photo shows Faßbender in his studio at the academy in Düsseldorf. He is sitting on a chair, wearing a black pullover and a scarf, his hair combed backwards, the striped painter overall lying over the back rest. He has a lot of space; several easels in different sizes are standing in the room, canvasses, a black board that has been drawn on with chalk, drawings at the walls. Further, several tables, brushes in vessels, colour tubes, paper, bottles with solvents, cloths, wrappers, adhesive tape, rubbers, tea cups, ashtrays.

Friedrich Gräsel, student in Hamburg 1953, remembers when Faßbender was a guest lecturer there: Before him, Georg Meistermann, Ernst Wilhelm Nay, and Hann Trier had already come as leading personalities of the German art scene. They were selected by Werner Haftmann. Faßbender taught Faßbender: The vertical and horizontal construction on the surface, and - in opposite to Nay - the choice between colour and non-colour. (...) He has the tendency to compose between green and rosé over grey. (...) The angle as a movement on the surface. By densifying he came close to Bauhaus and facilitated individual spaces. (...) He was the first guest lecturer who brought a model. To avoid colour inebriations he lectured about the grisaille painting and Uccello's frescoes and he recommended Caput Mortuum: We painted from red to green and came to grey. Faßbender was pleased to note that his students had escaped "Vernayung" (adapting Nay) without "faßbendering".

When his vision had become weak, he worked with a magnifying glass. He made meticulously small drawings and explained them to us. (...) He showed us some calligraphic discoveries, which added to our fantasy and our repertoire of shapes.

Claudia von Velsen, Faßbender student at Werkkunstschule in Krefeld and chair member of Kölnischer Kunstverein: His lessons were like "opening doors in the head". (...) Fassbender taught us how to look at the things from the front or from the side. (...) "You should drink lots of schnapps together. There is a way." That was a brilliant way of teaching. (...) He even sent us home when a work was extraordinarily good. One time, he said to me: "Child, well done, go home." I thought at first that I had done something wrong. But he said: "No, it is very good. But that is something you have to learn as well, when you have created something good, you have to stop." (...) We read out loud Jean Paul, Montaigne, E. T. A. Hoffmann while drinking red wine. (...) Today I see him and his extensive, narrowly woven style in the early 1950s and I see that the early Nay, Meistermann and Faßbender worked on similar topics. He did not disengage, but continued with that extreme densification in his paper works.

Heinrich Gillis Görtz, student at art academy Düsseldorf 1962-1967: After Faßbender, we had to distrust all "horrible means". He would not let us work with coal. He preferred the pen, which draws a sharp border. But he allowed that automatism which had established as a style of the whole class: the hand stayed on the paper in a very slow, slightly moving rhythm. You look at the model and work. You do not look at the drawing, and you control yourself only by the movement and size. (...) In the drawing exercises Faßbender preferred the decision for the line, the contour. (studentinterviews out of: Joseph Faßbender. Akademie-Galerie- Die neue Sammlung, Düsseldorf 2010)

Faßbender born in Cologne - dies on 5th January 1974 in Cologne. Hann Trier makes the funeral speech. In 1990, his wife introduces the Joseph-and-Anna-Faßbender-Prize, for which the town Brühl awards a scholarship for graphic and drawing every year.

Thanks to Barbara Piert-Borgers and Walter Borgers for receiving me so openly in Faßbender's studio-apartment in Schnurgasse, for the displayed paper works from the artist's estate, the skilful narrations, as well as to the authors and art historians who researched about Faßbender. Above all, Alice Trier-Franzen, Wulf Herzogenrath, formerly Kölnischer Kunstverein, and Maria Engels director of the institution "Kunst aus NRW".

out of the book „DONNERSTAG-GESELLSCHAFT 1947-1950“
published in 2010 by ZELLERMAYER Galerie Berlin, Carsta Zellermayer

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